Signs, Ranks, and Signed Ranks
The following are used in testing nonparametric statistics.
What is a sign?
 a value $\in \{0, 1\}$ assigned to each member of a dataset
 If the datamember is greater than the testvalue, it's assigned a 1. Otherwise it gets a 0.
What is a rank?
 The number representing a data points' place in the ordered set (1based index)
 If multiple points have the same value each is reassigned the mean of their original Ranks.
What is an absolute rank?
 Each point is reassigned its absolute value
 Then the set is Ranked
What is a signed rank?

Assign a 1 to each data point greater than the testvalue.

Assign a 0 to the remaining points.

Find the absolute rank.

For each point, assign it a signed rank:\[SignedRank = Sign \times AbsoluteRank\]
What is a rank sum?
 the sum of all the ranks for a dataset.